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Overview: Financial key figures

  • Knowledge
Kristoffer Ekelund Gerdes & Astrid Dam Schiøller 1 Jul 2019

Like many other companies, Risika uses of a lot of key figures, to keep track of the status of customers, business partners and competing companies. These key figures can give great insight into how well a company is doing. Although Risika has collected all the important key figures on the platform, you should be given the opportunity to calculate the key figures yourself. Therefore, we have made a list of the most important figures.


 

Table of contents:

  • Profitability ratios:
    • Operating margin
    • Gross margin
    • Net profit margin
    • Return on equity
    • Return on assets
    • Return on net assets (RONA)
    • Basic earning power (BEP)
    • Capacity ratio
    • Interest margin
    • Profit before tax margin / Pretax profit margin
    • Return on capital employed (ROCE)
    • Return on working capital

 

  • Liquidity ratios:
    • Liquidity ratio (current ratio)
    • Current assets to equity
    • Cash ratio
    • Cash conversion ratio (CCR)
    • Quick ratio

  • Leverage ratios:
    • Debt ratio
    • Solvency ratio (solidity ratio)
    • Debt to equity ratio
    • Liabilities to equity ratio
    • Income to debt ratio
    • EBITDA to debt ratio
    • Interest coverage ratio
    • Interest rate on debt
    • Equity to contributed capital ratio

  • Ratios for structure of balance sheet:
    • Fixed assets to long term liabilities
    • Fixed assets to total assets

  • Efficiency ratios:
    • Assets turnover ratio
    • Inventory turnover ratio
    • Receivables turnover ratio
    • Payables turnover ratio
    • Fixed assets turnover ratio (FAT)
    • Current assets turnover ratio
    • Capital employed turnover ratio
    • Working capital turnover ratio
  • Other ratios:
    • One year change in equity
    • One year change in debt

 

 

Profitability ratios:

Profitability ratios refers to the category of financial ratios which are used to assess a company's ability to create earnings in proportion to its revenue, equity and balance sheet assets.

 

OPERATING MARGIN

$$Operating \; margin = {EBIT \over Revenue}$$

The operating margin shows the relationship between the firm’s EBIT and its revenue. By that means, the operating margin shows the proportion of the revenue that remains as earnings after covering of all operating costs. Therefore, the operating margin becomes a significant key figure for assessment of a firm’s earning power.
 
Alternatively, the operating margin can be calculated as follows:
 
$$Operating \; margin = {EBIT + financial \; income \over Revenue}$$

 

GROSS MARGIN

$$Gross \; margin = {Gross \; result \over Revenue}$$

The gross margin shows the relationship between the firm’s gross result and its revenue. The gross margin expresses the proportion of the revenue solely used for covering the firm’s fixed costs. Moreover, the gross margin gives an indication of the magnitude of the variable costs. For instance, a low gross margin indicates that the firm’s variable costs have significant impact on the gross result.

 

NET PROFIT MARGIN

$$Net \; profit \; margin = {Profit/loss \over Revenue}$$

The net profit margin shows the relationship between the firm’s profit for the year and its revenue. The net profit margin expresses the firm’s ability to create profit in direct proportion to its revenue. Therefore, the net profit margin is key figure expressing the firm’s profitability.

 

RETURN ON EQUITY

$$Return \; on \; equity = {Profit/loss \over Equity}$$

The return on equity expresses the shareholders' return from the capital that they have invested in the company. By that means, it shows the return on the shareholders' contributed capital. 

The return on equity can also be calculated by using an average with the following formula:

$$Return \; on \; equity = {Profit/loss \over Average \; equity}$$

The return on equity can also be calculated by using the company's profit before tax as follows. By using the profit before tax, the influence of taxes on the profitability is eliminated.

$$Return \; on \; equity = {Profit \; before \; tax \over Average \; equity}$$

Moreover, the following formula shows the coherence between the company's return on assets, interest rate on debt and debt to equity ratio:

$$Return \; on \; equity = {Return \; on \; assets + (return \; on \; assets - interest \; rate \; on \; debt) * debt \; to \; equity \; ratio}$$

 

RETURN ON ASSETS

$$Return \; on \; assets = {Profit/loss \over Assets}$$

The company’s ability to create investment returns for the investors. The earnings are compared with the total amount invested in the company. The higher the return on assets, the better, as it shows that one can run a profitable business. One should be a bit careful with comparing this figure across industries, as the definition of what a “high” figure constitutes, can vary greatly across industries.

The return on assets can also be calculated by using an average with the following formula:

$$Return \; on \; assets = {Profit/loss \over Average \; assets}$$

Alternatively, the return on assets can be calculated by using the sum of both the EBIT and the financial income. By doing that, the influence of financial expenses and taxes on the return is eliminated. The formula is as follows:

$$Return \; on \; assets = {EBIT + financial \; income \over Average \; assets}$$

Moreover, the following formula shows the coherence between the company's return on assets, operating margin and asset turnover:

$$Return \; on \; assets = {Operating \; margin * Asset \; turnover \; ratio}$$

 

RETURN ON NET ASSETS (RONA)

$$Return \; on \; net \; assets = {Profit/loss \over Assets - debt}$$

The return on net assets ratio (RONA) shows the relationship between the firm’s income and its net-assets. The ratio belongs to the ratios known profitability ratios and expresses the firm’s ability to generate profits solely from its net-assets. Net-assets is defined as total assets with a subtraction of total debt.

The return on net assets can also be calculated by using an average with the following formula:

$$Return \; on \; net \; assets = {Profit/loss \over average \; assets - average \; debt}$$

 

BASIC EARNING POWER (BEP)

$$Basic \; earning \; power = {EBIT \over Assets}$$

The Basic Earning Power ratio shows the relationship between the firm’s earnings before deduction of interest and tax (EBIT) and its total assets. The ratio is a measurement for the firm’s earning power before the effect of taxes and financial leverage. The ratio belongs to the ratios known as profitability ratios.

 
The basic earning power can also be calculated by using an average with the following formula:
 
$$Basic \; earning \; power = {EBIT \over Average \; assets}$$
 
 

CAPACITY RATIO

$$Capacity \; ratio = {Gross \; result \over Gross \; result - EBIT}$$

The capacity ratio shows the relationship between the firm’s gross result and its gross result with EBIT subtracted. The capacity ratio expresses in what magnitude the fixed costs have affected the firm’s gross result. By that means, a high capacity ratio is indicating that the fixed costs have had a minor influence on the earnings from the basic operations and vice versa. The capacity ratio belongs to the ratios known as profitability ratios.

 

INTEREST MARGIN

$$Interest \; margin = {Return \; on \; assets - Interest \; rate \; on \; debt}$$

The interest margin shows the relationship between the firm’s return on assets (ROA) and its interest rate on debt. The interest margin is calculated as the return on assets minus the interest rate on debt. A positive interest margin, where return on assets is greater than the interest rate on debt, indicates that the firm benefits from operating with debt. Inversely, a negative interest margin indicates that the firm is worse off operating with debt.

 
 

PROFIT BEFORE TAX MARGIN / PRETAX PROFIT MARGIN

$$Profit \; before \; tax \; margin = {Profit \; before \; tax \over Revenue}$$

The profit before tax margin shows the relationship between the company's pretax profit and its revenue. The key figure expresses the magnitude of the profit before tax in proportion to the total revenue. By using the pretax profit instead of the profit/loss for the year, the influence of taxes on the profitability ratio is eliminated. 

 

RETURN ON CAPITAL EMPLOYED (ROCE)

$$Return \; on \; capital \; employed = {EBIT \over Assets - Current \; liabilities}$$

The return on capital employed shows the relationship between the company's EBIT and its capital employed which is defined as the total assets with the current liabilities deducted. By that, ROCE shows the operating profitability solely based on the employed capital. The ratio is a useful profitability indicator for companies with significant debt because the ratio includes both equity liabilities and not only equity.

 
 

RETURN ON WORKING CAPITAL

$$Return \; on \; working \; capital = {EBIT \over Current \; assets  - current \; liabilities}$$

The return on working capital shows the company's EBIT solely in proportion to its working capital. The working capital is defined as the current assets minus the current liabilities. 

 
 
 

Liquidity ratios:

Liquidity ratios refers to the category of financial ratios which are used to assess a company's short term ability to repay debt obligations.

 

LIQUIDITY RATIO / CURRENT RATIO

$$Liquidity \; ratio = {Current \; assets \over Short \; term \; debt}$$

The company’s ability to pay bills and repay debt. The figure is calculated as the ratio between the “easy-to-sell assets” (liquid assets/cash, inventory items etc.) and the current liabilities. The higher the liquidity ratio the better, as the company are more able to meet liabilities and pay current expenses.

 

CURRENT ASSETS TO EQUITY

$$Current \; assets \; to \; equity = {Current \; assets \over Equity}$$

The current assets to equity ratio shows the relationship between the firm’s current assets and its equity. The ratio is an indicator of the firm’s horizontal balance structure and provides insight in both the firm’s short-term and long-term financing activities. The ratio belongs to the ratios known as liquidity ratios. In terms of interpretation of the level of the ratio, it is highly industry dependent.

 

CASH RATIO

$$Cash ratio = {Cash \over Short \; term \; debt}$$

The cash ratio shows the relationship between the firm’s cash and its short-term debt. The cash ratio is a measurement of the firm’s liquidity and belongs to the ratios known as liquidity ratios. More specifically, it expresses the firm’s ability to repay its short-term debt solely with cash. The cash ratio is useful to creditors when determining how much to issue in terms of loans.  

 

CASH CONVERSION RATIO (CCR)

$$Cash \; conversion \; ratio = {Cash \; flow \; for \; the \; year \over Profit/loss}$$

The cash conversion ratio shows the relationship the firm’s cash flow and its profit. Therefore, the cash conversion ratio can be interpreted as the firm’s ability to convert profits into accessible cash. The cash conversion ratio belongs to the ratios known as liquidity ratios.

 

QUICK RATIO

$$Quick \; ratio = {Current \; assets - Inventory \over Short \; term \; debt}$$

The quick ratio shows the relationship between the firm’s short-term debt and its current assets deducted inventory. By that means, the ratio is an indicator of the firm’s ability to pay its short-term debt obligations merely with its most liquid assets. A quick ratio of 1 or above implies a healthy liquidity position because all short-term debt obligations can be paid off with only those current assets that can be instantly liquidated. 

 
 
 

Leverage ratios:

Leverage ratios refers to the category of financial ratios which are used to assess a company's debt burden. By that means, the leveraging ratios compare the debt obligations with both equity and assets.

 

DEBT RATIO

$$Debt \; ratio = {Debt \over Assets}$$

The debt ratio shows the relationship between the firm’s debt in total and its balance sheet total. The debt ratio expresses the proportion of the total assets financed by debt. By that means, a high debt ratio denotes that the firm’s assets are financed primarily by debt. Inversely, a lower debt ratio denotes that the firm’s assets are financed primarily by equity. The debt ratio belongs to the ratios known as debt ratios.

 

SOLVENCY RATIO / SOLIDITY RATIO

$$Solvency \; ratio = {Equity \over Assets}$$

The company’s ability to carry greater losses. Financing is typically done with a combination of equity and debt. A low figure is typically bad, since it means proportionally more debt, and thus large losses cannot be paid off with equity.

 

DEBT TO EQUITY RATIO

$$Debt \; to \; equity \; ratio = {Debt \over Equity}$$

The company’s ability to resist major internal or external crises, as the company pays interest on the debt through its cash flow, which is likely to be much lower in the event of an economic downturn. The figure describes the level of a company’s debt in relation to the equity percentage. The lower debt-to-equity ratio, the better, and it should preferably be under 100%.

The debt to equity ratio can also be calculated by using an average with the following formula:

$$Debt \; to \; equity \; ratio = {Average \; debt \over Average \; equity}$$

 

LIABILITIES TO EQUITY RATIO

$$Liabilities \; to \; equity \; ratio = {Equity \; and \; liabilities - Equity \over Equity}$$

Liabilities to equity ratio shows the relationship between the firm’s liabilities and its equity. The liabilities to equity ratio is indicating whether the firm operates primarily through liabilities or equity. The liabilities to equity ratio belongs to the ratios known as debt ratios.  

 

INCOME TO DEBT RATIO

$$Income \; to \; debt \; ratio = {Profit/loss \over Debt}$$

The income-to-debt ratio shows the relationship between the firm’s profit and debt. The income-to-debt ratio is an expression of the firm’s ability to create earnings by operating with debt. The ratio belongs to the ratios known as leveraging ratios.
 
The income to debt ratio can also be calculated by using an average with the following formula:
 
$$Income \; to \; debt \; ratio = {Profit/loss \over Average \; debt}$$
 
 
 
 

EBITDA TO DEBT RATIO

$$EBITDA \; to \; debt \; ratio = {EBITDA \over Debt}$$

The EBITDA to debt ratio shows the relationship between the firm’s earnings before interest, taxes depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) and its debt. The EBITDA to debt ratio is a measurement of the earnings (EBITDA) availability to fulfill debt payments before covering interest, taxes depreciation and amortization expenses. The EBITDA to debt ratio belongs to the ratios known as debt ratios.

 
The EBITDA to debt ratio can also be calculated by using an average with the following formula:
 
$$EBITDA \; to \; debt \; ratio = {EBITDA \over Average \; debt}$$
 
 
 

INTEREST COVERAGE RATIO

$$Interest \; coverage \;  = {EBIT \over ABS \; interest \; expenses}$$

The company’s ability to repay interest on debt. The key figure describes the ratio between the gross earning and the interest costs. If this figure falls below 150%, it typically is a very bad sign, as it is doubtful that the company will survive will a smaller dip in earnings.

 
 

INTEREST RATE ON DEBT

$$Interest \; rate \; on \; debt = {Financial \; expenses \over Average \; liabilities}$$

The interest rate on debt shows the relationship between the firm’s financial expenses and its total liabilities. By that means, the interest rate on debt expresses that particular interest rate the firm pays for its liabilities. The interest rate on debt belongs to the ratios known as debt ratios.

 
 
 

EQUITY TO CONTRIBUTED CAPITAL RATIO

$$Equity \; to \; contributed \; capital \; ratio = {Equity \over Contributed \; capital}$$

The equity to contributed capital ratio shows the relationship between the firm’s total equity and its contributed capital. By that means, the ratio is an indicator of the magnitude of the equity in proportion to the contributed capital. Moreover, the ratio indicates the development of the equity with the contributed capital being the starting point.

 

Ratios for structure of balance sheet:

The structure of the balance sheet is divided into two parts; the horizontal and the vertical.

 

The fixed assets to long term liabilities ratio and the current ratio constitute the company's horizontal structure of balance sheet. The horizontal structure of balance sheet shows both the relationship between the short term debt and the current assets (expressed through the current ratio) plus the relationship between the fixed assets and the long term capital (expressed through the fixed assets to long term liabilities ratio.

The vertical structure of balance sheet consists of the fixed assets to total assets ratio, the debt ratio, the solvency ratio and the debt to equity ratio. The fixed assets to total assets ratio shows the relationship between the fixed and current assets, and the debt ratio, the solvency ratio and the debt to equity ratio shows the relationship between the company's liabilities and equity.

 

FIXED ASSETS TO LONG TERM LIABILITIES

$$Fixed \; assets \; to \; long \; term \; debt = {Fixed \; assets \over Equity + Long \; term \; forpligtelser}$$

The fixed assets to long term liabilities ratio shows the relationship between the firm’s fixed assets and its long-term capital (equity and long-term liabilities). As regards to the firm’s liquidity position, the ratio should be below 100%. Thereby, the firm has more long-term capital than fixed assets indicating that the long-term capital is financing considerably more than merely fixed assets. The ratio belongs to the ratios known as liquidity ratios.
 

FIXED ASSETS TO TOTAL ASSETS 

$$Fixed \; assets \; to \; total \; assets = {Fixed \; assets \over Total \; assets}$$

The fixed assets to total assets ratio shows the relationship between the fixed and total assets. By that means, the ratio indirectly shows the relationship between the fixed and current assets. The level of the fixed assets to total assets ratio is heavily affected by the industry of the company. In general, the following levels are satisfying:

  • Manufacturing company: 40-50%
  • Trading company:  20-30%
  • Service company:  10-15%
 
 
  

Efficiency ratios:

Efficiency ratios refers to the category of financial ratios which are used to assess a company's ability to adjust and manage its level of acitivity in proportion to its disposal capital.

 

ASSET TURNOVER RATIO

$$Asset \; turnover \; ratio = {Revenue \over Assets}$$

The asset turnover shows the relationship between the firm’s revenue and its total assets. Thereby, the asset turnover expresses the firm’s ability to generate revenue in direct proportion to its total assets.

The asset turnover can also be calculated by using an average with the following formula:
 

$$Asset \; turnover \; ratio = {Average \; revenue \over Average \; assets}$$

 

INVENTORY TURNOVER RATIO / INVENTORY CONVERSION RATIO

$$Inventory \; turnover \; ratio = {365,25  \over {Revenue \over Inventory}}$$

The inventory turnover ratio shows the relationship between the firm’s revenue and its inventories. The ratio expresses the amount of times the firm has sold and replaced its inventory annually. A low inventory conversion ratio may indicate weakened sales or perhaps excess inventory.

 

RECEIVABLES TURNOVER RATIO

$$Receivables \; turnover \; ratio = {Revenue \over Receivables}$$

The receivables turnover ratio measures how fast the debtors pay back the amounts they are due. If the receivable turnover ratio is high, it is positive, since the debtors pay relatively quickly – meaning they have a short credit period.

 

PAYABLES TURNOVER RATIO

$$Payables \; turnover \; ratio = {Cost \; of \; sales \over Payables}$$

The accounts payable turnover ratio tells us for how long the company has credit time with the creditors. It is positive for a company if the accounts payable turnover ratio is low, since the company thereby will keep its money within the company for as long as possible

 

FIXED ASSETS TURNOVER RATIO (FAT)

$$Fixed \; assets \; turnover \; ratio = {Revenue \over Fixed \; assets}$$

The fixed assets turnover ratio shows the relationship between the company's revenue and its fixed assets. The ratio expresses the company's ability to generate revenue solely based on its fixed assets. A high ratio indicates that the company has invested effectively in fixed assets to create revenue.

 

CURRENT ASSETS TURNOVER RATIO

$$Current \; assets \; turnover \; ratio = {Revenue \over Current \; assets}$$

The current assets turnover ratio shows the relationship between the company's revenue and its current assets. The ratio expresses the company's ability to generate revenue solely based on its current assets. A high ratio indicates that the company has invested effectively in current assets to create revenue.

 

CAPITAL EMPLOYED TURNOVER RATIO

$$Capital \; employed \; turnover \; ratio = {Revenue \over Assets - Current \; liabilities}$$

The capital employed turnover ratio shows how efficiently the company generates revenue solely based on its employed capital, which is being defined as total assets minus current liabilities. A high turnover ratio indicates that the company utilizes its employed capital to create revenue.

 

WORKING CAPITAL TURNOVER RATIO

$$Working \; capital \; turnover \; ratio = {Revenue \over Current \; assets - Current \; liabilities}$$

The working capital turnover ratio shows the relationship between the company's revenue and its working capital, which is being defined as current assets minus current liabilities. The ratio expresses the company's ability to utilize its working capital to create revenue. 

 

Other ratios:

ONE YEAR CHANGE IN EQUITY 

$$One \; year \; change \; in \; equity = {Equity \over Equity - Profit/loss}$$

One year change in equity is calculated as equity divided by equity minus profit for the year. One year change in equity is indicating the level of either an increase or a decrease in the firm’s equity in the current year.

 

ONE YEAR CHANGE IN DEBT

$$One \; year \; change \; in \; debt = {{Debt \; 1. \; year \over Debt \; 2. \; year}-1}$$

One year change in debt is calculated as current year’s debt divided by last year’s debt. With that, one year change in debt is indicating the level of either an increase or a decrease in the firm’s debt.
 
 

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